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您现在的位置: 木哥机械资料商城 >> 机械翻译类 >> 车削、铣削和磨削比较
设计名称
  车削、铣削和磨削比较
设计编号
  A8-175
设计软件
  Word
包含内容
  WORD文档
说明书页数
  19页(中英文)
图纸数量
  机械翻译(无图)
推荐指数
  较好
价格:
  优惠中
整理日期
  2012,07,19
整理人
  小木
购买流程
  <点此查看如何购买本站设计>
设计简介

车削、铣削和磨削
用于车外圆,端面和镗孔等加工的机床称作机床。车削很少在其他种类的机床上进行,因为其他的车床都不能向车床那样方便得进行车削加工。由于车创出了用于车外圆外还能用于镗孔,车断面,钻孔和铰孔,车床的多功能型可以使工件在一次定位安装中完成多种加工。这就是在生产中普遍使用各种车床比其他种类的车床都要多的原因。
两千多年前就已经有了车床。现代车床可以追述到大约1797年,那时候亨利*莫德斯利发明了一种具有丝杠的车床。 这种车床可以控制工具的机械进给。 这位聪明的英国人还发明了一种把主轴和丝杠相连接的变速装置, 这样就可以切削螺纹。
车床的主要部件:床身,主轴箱组件,尾架组件,托板组件,变速齿轮箱,丝杠和光杠。
床身是车床的基础件。它通常是由经过充分正火或时效处理的灰铸铁或者球墨铸铁制成, 它是一个坚固的刚性框架,所有其他主要部件都安装在床身上。 通常在床身上面有内外两组相平行的导轨。 一些制造厂生产的四个条导轨都采用倒‘v’ 形,而另一些制造厂则将倒 V 形导轨和平面导轨相结合。 由于其他的部件要安装在导轨上并(或)在导轨上移动,导轨要经过精密的加工,以保证其装配精度。同样的,在操作中应当小心,以避免损伤导轨。导轨上的任何误差,常常会使整个机床的精度遭到破坏。 大多数现代车床的导轨要进行表面淬火处理,以减少摩擦和擦伤,具有更大的耐磨性。
主轴箱安装在床身一端内导轨的固定位置上。 它提供动力,使工件在各种速度下旋转。 它基本上由一个安装在精密轴承中的空心主轴和一系列变速齿轮——类似于卡车变速箱所组成,通过变速齿轮,主轴可以在许多种转速下旋转。 大多数车床有8—18种转速,一般按等比级数排列。 在现代车床上只需要搬动2—4个手柄,就能得到全部挡位的转速。 目前发展的趋势是通过电气的或者机械的装置进行无极变速。
由于车床的精度在很大程度上取决于主轴,因此主轴的结构尺寸较大,通常安装在紧密配合的重型圆锥滚子轴承或球轴承中。 主轴中有一个贯穿全长的通孔,长棒料可以通过该孔送料。主轴孔的大小是车床的一个重要尺寸,因为当工件必须通过主轴孔供料时,它确定了能够加工棒料毛胚的最大外径尺寸。
主轴的内端面从主轴箱中凸出,其上可以安装多种卡盘,花盘,档块。而小型的车床常带有螺纹截面供安装卡盘之用。大多数车床使用偏心夹或键动圆锥轴头。这些附件组成了一个大直径的圆锥体, 以保证对卡盘进行精确的装配,并且不用旋转这些笨重的附件就可以锁定或者松开卡盘或者花盘。
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附录2
Turning, milling and grinding
The basic machines that are designed primarily to do turning, facing and boring are called lathes. Very little turning is done on other types of machine tools, and none can do it with equal facility. Because lathe can do boring, facing, drilling, and reaming in addition to turning, their versatility permits several operations to be performed with a single setup of the work piece. This account for the fact that lathes of various types are more widely used in manufacturing than any other machine tool.
Lathes in various forms have existed for more than two thousand years. Modern lathes date from about 1797, when Henry Maudsley developed one with a lead screw. It provided controlled, mechanical feed of the tool. This ingenious Englishman also developed a change gear system that could connect the motions of the spindle and leads crew and thus enable threads to be cut.
Lathe Construction. The essential components of a lathe are depicted in the block diagram of Fig.15. These are the bed, headstock assembly, tailstock assembly, carriage assemble, quick-change gear box, and the leads crew and feed rod.
The bed is the backbone of lathe. It usually is made of well-normalized or aged gray or nodular cast iron and provides a heavy, rigid frame on which all the other basic components are mounted. Two sets of parallel, longitudinal ways, inner and outer, and contained on the bed, usually on the upper side. Some makers use an inverted V-shape for all four ways, whereas others utilize one inverted V and one flat ways intone or both set. Because several other components are mounted and /or move on the ways they must be made with precision to assure accuracy of alignment. Similarly, proper precaution should be taken in operating a lathe to assure that the ways are not damaged; any inaccuracy in them usually means that the accuracy of the entire lathe is destroyed. The ways on most modern lathes are surface hardened to offer greater resistance to wear and abrasion.
The headstock is mounted in affixed position on the inner ways at one end of the lathe bed. It provides a provides a powered means of rotating the work at various speeds. It consists, essentially, of a hollow spindle, mounted in accurate bearings, and a set of transmission gears---similar to a truck transmission---through which the spindle can be rotated at a number of speeds. Most lathes provide from eight to eighteen speeds, usually in a geometric ratio, and on modern lathes all the speeds can be obtained merely by moving from two to four levers. An increasing trend is to provide a continuously variable speed range through electrical or mechanical drives.
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此为机械毕业设计之翻译

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