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您现在的位置: 木哥机械资料商城 >> 机械翻译类 >> 泵的概述
设计名称
  泵的概述
设计编号
  A8-173
设计软件
  Word
包含内容
  WORD文档
说明书页数
  14页(中英文)
图纸数量
  机械翻译(无图)
推荐指数
  较好
价格:
  优惠中
整理日期
  2012,07,19
整理人
  小木
购买流程
  <点此查看如何购买本站设计>
设计简介

泵的概述
泵是应用非常广泛的通用机械,可以说是液体流动之处,几乎都有泵在工作。而且,随着科学技术的发展,泵的应用领域正在迅速扩大,根据国家统计,泵的耗电量都约占全国总发电量的1/5,可见泵是当然的耗能大户。因而,提高泵技术水平对节约能耗具有重要意义。
一.离心泵的工作原理
驱动机通过泵轴带动叶轮旋转产生离心力,在离心力作用下,液体沿叶片流道被甩向叶轮出口,液体经蜗壳收集送入排出管。液体从叶轮获得能量,使压力能和速度能均增加,并依靠此能量将液体输送到工作地点。
在液体被甩向叶轮出口的同时,叶轮入口中心处形成了低压,在吸液罐和叶轮中心处的液体之间就产生了压差,吸液罐中的液体在这个压差作用下,不断地经吸入管路及泵的吸入室进入叶轮中。
二、离心泵的结构及主要零部件
一台离心泵主要由泵体、叶轮、密封环、旋转轴、轴封箱等部件组成,有些离心泵还装有导轮、诱导轮、平衡盘等。
1.泵体:即泵的壳体,包括吸入室和压出室。
①吸入室:它的作用是使液体均匀地流进叶轮。
②压出室:它的作用是收集液体,并把它送入下级叶轮或导向排出管,与此同时降低液体的速度,使动能进一步变成压力能。压出室有蜗壳和导叶两种形式。
2.叶轮:它是离心泵内传递能量给液体的唯一元件,叶轮用键固定于轴上,随轴由原动机带动旋转,通过叶片把原动机的能量传给液体。
叶轮分类:
①按照液体流入分类:单吸叶轮(在叶轮的一侧有一个入口)和双吸叶轮(液体从叶轮的两侧对称地流到叶轮流道中)。
②按照液体相对于旋转轴线的流动方向分类:径流式叶轮、轴流式叶轮和混流式叶轮。
③按照叶轮的结构形式分类:闭式叶轮、开式叶轮和半开式叶轮。
3.轴:是传递机械能的重要零件,原动机的扭矩通过它传给叶轮。泵轴是泵转子的主要零件,轴上装有叶轮、轴套、平衡盘等零件。泵轴靠两端轴承支承,在泵中作高速回转,因而泵轴要承载能力大、耐磨、耐腐蚀。泵轴的材料一般选用碳素钢或合金钢并经调质处理。
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Pump's outline
The pump is the application very widespread general machinery, may say that is place of the fluid flow, nearly has the pump in the work. Moreover, along with science's and technology's development, pump's application domain is expanding rapidly, according to the over-all state statistics, pump's power consumption approximately composes the national total output of electrical energy 1/5, obviously the pump is natural consumes energy the wealthy and powerful family. Therefore, raises the pump technical level to save the energy consumption to have the important meaning.
First. Centrifugal pump's principle of work
The drive leads impeller revolving through the pump spindle to have the centrifugal force, under the centrifugal action of force, the liquid is flung along the leaf blade flow channel to the impeller export, the liquid sends in after the volute collection the eduction tube. The liquid obtains the energy from the impeller,  causes the pressure energy and the speed can increase, and depends upon this energy the hydraulic transport to the operating location. while the liquid is flung which exports to the impeller, the impeller eye center has formed the low pressure,  has had the differential pressure in the imbibition pot and between the impeller center liquid, in the imbibition pot's liquid under this differential pressure function, after inhales the pipeline and pump's suction chamber unceasingly enters in the impeller.
Second, centrifugal pump's structure and main spare part
A centrifugal pump mainly by the pump body, the impeller, the packing ring, the rotation axis, the axis seals parts and so on box to be composed, some centrifugal pumps are also loaded with the guide pulley, the inducer, the balance disc and so on.
1. Pump body: Namely pump's shell, including suction chamber and delivery chamber.
①Suction chamber: Its function is enables the liquid to flow in evenly the impeller.
②Delivery chamber: Its function collects the liquid, and sends in it the subordinate impeller or guides the eduction tube, at the same time reduces the liquid the speed, causes the kinetic energy to further turn the pressure energy. The delivery chamber has the volute and the guide vane two forms.
2. Impeller: It is in the centrifugal pump transmits the energy for the liquid only part, the impeller with the bond fixation on the axis, leads revolving along with the axis by the prime mover, passes to through the leaf blade prime mover's energy the liquid.
Impeller classification:
①According to liquid inflow classification: Single suction impeller
(in impeller's one side has an entrance) and double attracts the impeller (liquid from impeller's lateral symmetry liudao impeller passage).
②Is opposite according to the liquid in centerline's flow direction classification: Runoff type impeller, axial-flow propeller and interflow type impeller.
③According to impeller's structural style classification: Shrouded impeller, open type impeller and semi-opened impeller.
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